UP TO 50 PERCENT OF BRAIN TUMORS RESISTANT TO STANDARD CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENT TMZ
When a patient presents with a malignant glioblastoma, the current standard therapy is total resection surgery followed by radiation, either alone or in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy.1 Used to treat several types of cancer, orally-administered alkylating agent TMZ is known to inhibit cell reproduction by blocking the replication of DNA.2 Although it is less toxic than other alkylating agents, TMZ does not display efficacy in as many as 50 percent of brain tumors.3 Because of this, as well as the high rate of chemotherapy resistance in recurrent brain malignancies, there is an urgent need for new drugs for treatment-resistant tumors.4 Continue reading
ONE-OF-A-KIND FUNDING MODEL ALLOWS FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
Data manager, Nicole Matthews shares inforamation with Scott Simon, M.D., assistant professor of neurosurgery
Penn State Hershey Neuroscience Institute is home to the Office of Patient Oriented Research (OPOR), which facilitates neurological human trials research. Director, John Graybeal, explains that the OPOR acts as more than just an industry-sponsored clinical trials office, but also makes it possible for physicians to conduct translational research on existing data, with a focus on stroke, cerebrovascular disorders, and tumors of the central nervous system. The unique funding ratio of the OPOR—40 percent from industry, 40 percent from government, and 20 percent from within the department itself—is one key component of this ongoing work.
Robert Harbaugh, M.D., director of the Neuroscience Institute, elaborates: “The OPOR has facilitated substantial growth of multidisciplinary clinical trials in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease and brain tumors at Penn State Hershey Medical Center. The goals of the Neuroscience Institute, to foster interdisciplinary collaboration and support bench to bedside and bedside to bench translational research, are greatly enhanced by the work of OPOR.” Continue reading
DECREASED STROKE RISK CITED AS PRIMARY BENEFIT OF REGIONAL ANESTHESIA, ESPECIALLY IN OLDER PATIENTS
Carotid endoarterectomy (CEA) has long been used in selected patients with carotid stenosis, especially in those with 70 to 99 percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery.1 The majority of those surgeries are performed under general anesthesia; however, an increasing number of neurosurgeons believe that performing the procedure under regional and local anesthesia results in superior outcomes. Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery, Scott Simon, M.D., strongly agrees. In fact, he and Robert Harbaugh, M.D., professor and chair of the Department of Neurosurgery, insist that all CEA patients receive regional anesthesia, in the absence of mitigating factors.
As Simon states, “Most of our patients have already had a stroke, and there’s evidence that putting a brain that’s already been injured under general anesthesia can cause cognitive limitations when the patient wakes up.” When asked about the landmark CREST (Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial), which appeared to indicate that stenting offers similar outcomes to surgery, Simon points out that the data clearly indicate a much lower risk of postoperative stroke with CEA (2.3 percent versus 4.1 percent with stenting),1 a significant indicator of patient quality of life post-procedure. Further, of more than 2,500 patients in the CREST trial, only 10 percent received regional anesthesia.1 Continue reading
NOVEL PROGRAM OFFERS PATIENTS LESS INVASIVE TREATMENT OPTION
Spinal column reconstruction for the management of adult spinal deformity (ASD) is technically challenging and has been associated with high complication rates,1 which may explain why few locations perform it. However, at Penn State Hershey Medical Center, specialists perform the correction using a posterior-only approach, as opposed to the more traditional anterior-posterior approach.2 Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery, John P. Kelleher, M.D. states, “This minimizes the need for next-day staging of the procedure. However, when staging is necessary, we use a minimally invasive extreme lateral approach which causes minimal blood loss and leads to rapid recovery.”
Patient unable to stand for a significant time, secondary to excruciating pain with sagittal imbalance. On the right are standing films of the same patient after multilevel surgery correction of the sagittal imbalance.
The major surgical procedure required to reshape the spine in cases of ASD typically requires an inpatient stay of between seven and ten days, followed by robust support in the weeks thereafter, making it unrealistic for many patients and their families. However, Kelleher has joined the Penn State Hershey Neurosurgery team to spearhead the spinal deformity surgery program in collaboration with colleague J. Christopher Zacko, M.D., who also uses this less invasive approach. Continue reading
The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association has recognized Penn State Hershey Medical Center for its high-level care of stroke patients. The Medical Center has received the Get With The Guidelines®-Stroke Gold-Plus Quality Achievement Award for the sixth consecutive year by meeting specific quality achievement measures for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke patients.
The award is the highest level of recognition available for treatment of patients with stroke and recognizes Penn State Hershey for implementing specific quality improvement measures outlined by the AHA/ASA for the treatment of stroke patients.
Penn State Hershey also received the association’s Target: Stroke Honor Roll for meeting stroke quality measures that reduce the time between hospital arrival and treatment with the clot-buster tPA.
Penn State Hershey is one of only seven Comprehensive Stroke Centers in Pennsylvania, the only one in Central Pennsylvania, and one of only seventy-eight in the country.
Open communication between participants enhances the success of the Penn State Hershey LionNet telestroke system.
Penn State Hershey Medical Center spearheads a sophisticated telestroke system, LionNet, expanding the capabilities of partner hospitals. By exposing more patients to specialized neurological care, LionNet can dramatically increase positive outcomes for patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Using advanced computer systems with webcams, LionNet allows a Penn State Hershey stroke neurologist or neurosurgeon to consult in real-time with an ED doctor at a partner facility. The specialist examines the patient remotely, reviews scans, and makes a recommendation regarding whether to begin intravenous tPA therapy or transport the patient for possible neurosurgical intervention at Penn State Hershey Medical Center.
Penn State Hershey Movement Disorders Center is home to a research study focused on the early diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and a program for measuring the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment in advanced cases of the disease.
Associate Professor of Neurosurgery James McInerney, M.D., states, because PD symptoms can be mistaken for other disorders, an accurate PD diagnosis often does not occur until up to 80 percent of dopamine neurons have died. His colleague, Vice Chair for Research and Professor of Neurosurgery Xuemei Huang, M.D., Ph.D., leads a team that studies the dynamics of arm swing coordination during walking in both PD patients and controls, to identify any marked differences.1 Continue reading
As many as 70 percent of epilepsy patients can be controlled with anti-seizure medications; however, the remaining 30 percent are thought to have drug-resistant epilepsy with poorly-controlled seizures. The addition or substitution of medications usually does not significantly improve outcomes in this population; in one study, as few as 1 percent of patients receiving a third medication for epilepsy were seizure-free.1
Image of brain after the completion of Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG).
The Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Penn State Hershey Medical Center, designated as a level IV epilepsy center by the National Association of Epilepsy Centers (NAEC), specializes in the treatment of complicated epilepsy cases, and coordinates multi-disciplinary care for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of both adult and pediatric epilepsy. Medical Director Jayant Acharya, M.D., points out that since the facility also participates in both surgical and medical research, eligible patients may have access to pre-approval medications through participation in clinical trials.
If results of both standard and ambulatory EEG prove inconclusive, more extensive monitoring takes place in the inpatient Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU), where patients are monitored by a team of experts while various tests are performed, from noninvasive video-EEG monitoring up to invasive intracranial monitoring with subdural or intracerebral depth electrode placement.
Robert Harbaugh, M.D., professor and chair of Penn State Hershey Neurosurgery and director of Penn State Hershey Neuroscience Institute, has been chosen as president-elect of the Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS). The SNS is the oldest neurological society in the world and includes leaders in neurosurgical residency education. Harbaugh also serves as president of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and as vice-chair of the American Board of Neurological Surgery.
Penn State Center for Neural Engineering has combined its research mission with the clinical mission of Penn State Hershey Neuroscience Institute to develop a Smart ICU, using the data collection and synthesis method known as predictive modeling to deliver patient-specific care. Although its use in medicine is relatively new, predictive modeling has proven successful in areas as diverse and complex as weather forecasting and aviation.1
Currently, medical practitioners are presented with a multitude of variables relating to critically ill patients—as many as 200 during one session of rounds alone—and must make time-sensitive clinical decisions based on these data. This can contribute to ongoing information overload and even lead to preventable medical errors.2
J. Christopher Zacko, M.D., director of Penn State Hershey Neuroscience Critical Care Unit, states, “In addition to the standard measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP), factors such as microdialysis, cerebral blood flow, sodium levels, and cerebral oxygen pressure can all be important in the treatment of brain-injured patients.” Continues Steven Schiff, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Center for Neural Engineering, “When all this data is collected and analyzed in real time—we can better determine what’s going on with a patient. It’s too much data to keep in your head, but a predictive computer model can produce recommendations. Call it the ‘Big Data’ approach.” He cites a patient in whom intracranial pressure (ICP) is not yet elevated. Predictive modeling may suggest treatment methodologies that would prevent ICP from rising in the first place – which it almost surely would do otherwise.