The novel technology of brain-computer interface (BCI) uses brain activity, as measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) to control external devices, facilitating paralyzed patients’ ability to communicate. This technology¹ can allow patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to communicate even after they have lost the gaze control necessary for eye-tracking communication programs.¹ For maximum efficacy, BCI programs must account for aspects of disease heterogeneity, such as cognitive impairment, according to Andrew Geronimo, Ph.D., instructor, Penn State Hershey Neurosurgery.
“Our primary contribution to the ongoing ALS patient research is to account for cognitive impairment as we customize BCI programs for each patient,” says Geronimo, who is conducting ongoing studies in the area. “It represents the future direction of this field.” Cognitive decline is present in 50 percent of patients with ALS, once thought to be a purely motor neuron disease, with 15 percent of patients meeting the clinical criteria for dementia. While most clinicians are aware of this fact, the majority of BCI designers are not, a knowledge gap that Geronimo hopes to bridge with his work. Continue reading